Papers

Europe’s Role in North Africa: Development, Investment and Migration

North African countries are among the continent’s more developed economies. Their geographical positions make them natural partners for the EU. The region is diverse but political instability has been a common feature that in recent years has hindered economic development. Cyclical factors and deep-rooted structural weaknesses have also contributed to weak economic performance. Conditions for […]

Papers

The European Union and Its Southern Neighborhood

The Arab Spring of 2011 was a major shock for the European Union and all the Member States. The way these revolutions broke out across several countries in the Middle East confirmed how generations of young and old in the region could no longer tolerate the authoritarian regimes under which they had no choice but […]

Papers

Europe in North Africa: Fighting Short-Termism

Europe and North Africa are bound in a strategic relationship. The stability, security and prosperity of both regions are inextricably linked. European countries – both individually and collectively (inside and outside the framework of the European Union) – have to develop a more strategic approach to their southern neighbourhood in order to overcome the current […]

Papers

Toward a Recalibration of EU-North Africa Relations

As European leaders grapple with a wide array of domestic, regional, and international challenges, it may seem easier to revert to the pre-2011 mode of EU-North Africa relations, when they embraced and supported autocrats. To do so would be a grave mistake. Clearly, there is an urgent need to recalibrate EU-North Africa relations, where cooperation […]

Papers

What Do the People (Still) Want? Conceptions of Democracy

EU policy towards its Southern Neighbourhood is focused on ensuring the security of its member states and is underpinned by an assumption of a shared interest in democracy, security and prosperity through market liberalisation and trade. It sees the main way of achieving its aim as promoting Western-style liberal democracy which it sees as the […]

Papers

The Scramble for Eastern Syria

Iran and its proxies have already begun to shape post-ISIS Syria, and eastern Syria is the most important theater. Yet recent events show that Iranian-backed forces advancing there will inevitability collide with two hostile forces, and compete with one of them. The first lies south in the al-Tanf border area, where US special forces and […]

Papers

Planning Post-IS Iraq: Competing Visions within the Shia Block?

In light of the weak Sunni political leadership and with the Kurds being distracted by a renewed push for independence as well as talks about independence, the Shia block is realistically the key determinant for national reconciliation to occur in Iraq. However, its internal divisions make it a problematic and non–unitary interlocutor for national, regional, […]

Papers

Iraq after the Fall of ISIS: The Struggle for the State

The defeat of ISIS’ ‘caliphate’ project in Iraq, together with the national and provincial elections due in 2018, presents a renewed opportunity to halt the cycle of failure and repair that has undermined efforts to assert national cohesion and win citizens’ confidence in government institutions since 2003. The last opportunity to do so emerged in […]

Papers

After Mosul. Re-Inventing Iraq

Mosul has become the symbol of the rise of the “Islamic State”, and its liberation will mark a new milestone for the land of the two rivers. But this will not necessarily make things easier. Not only does the liberation of Mosul not entail the complete defeat of IS in Iraq, but it also risks […]

Papers

After ISIS: How to Win the Peace in Iraq and Libya

ISIS lost vast territory and thousands of fighters in Iraq, Libya, and Syria. This is welcome news, but, as ISIS’ grip on territory loosens, the perhaps more difficult task of establishing a new political order begins. In recent years we have learned to our cost that counter-terrorism without stabilisation simply does not work. Without a […]

Papers

Libya after ISIS

Among the many crises now facing the new Trump administration, Libya poses a growing challenge. The shattered Mediterranean state is close to open civil war, which could have profoundly negative consequences for U.S. interests and allies. Although the Islamic State (ISIS) was driven from its main areas of control in Libya last year and oil […]

Papers

An Economic Ultimatum for the Arab World

If Middle Eastern countries do not start making real progress on fundamental political and economic reforms, further regional turmoil is inevitable. With the rentier systems that governments have maintained for decades now at a breaking point, policymakers must begin the difficult, but not impossible, process of establishing new social contracts. That contract in Arab countries […]

Papers

Business Model for Cross-Border Interconnections in the Mediterranean basin

The existing Mediterranean energy infrastructure  was  mostly designed and built  more than 50  years ago and were based on the national-level energy policies and security of supply priorities of the time. Since  then,  the  energy  landscape  has  changed  dramatically.  Now,  national  dynamics  must  be harmonised with regional and global developments and policies. In particular, climate […]

Papers

Towards a Green Economy in the Mediterranean

All Mediterranean countries still have a long way to go to mainstream green and sustainable development principles into their economies. While some countries have well defined Green Economy/Sustainable Development strategies (such as France, Italy, Morocco, Portugal and Tunisia), they still lack concrete implementation mechanisms, stakeholders’ commitment and systematic follow-up and evaluation. Several countries have not […]

Papers

Europe in a Changing World–Inclusive, Innovative and Reflective Societies

The European Union is currently faced with manifold challenges within and beyond its borders. Internally, growing inequality undermines its potential to create prosperity and provide stability. Six million people lost their job during the crisis, more than 120 million people are at risk of poverty and fourteen million youth (15-29 years) are not in education, […]

Papers

Restoring EU Competitiveness

Decisive measures are needed to raise Europe’s competitiveness in order to support higher levels of productivity, employment and prosperity. The effects of the crisis have exacerbated structural weaknesses and contributed to a legacy of economic and policy challenges that need to be tackled. These challenges have been made more pressing by the unprecedented rise in […]

Papers