Peter Mandaville is Senior Advisor in the Secretary of State’s Office of Religion & Global Affairs at the US Department of State. He is currently on leave from George Mason University where he is Professor of International Affairs in the Schar School of Policy & Government, and Co-Director of the Ali Vural Ak Center for Islamic Studies. Other affiliations have included the Brookings Institution, the RAND Corporation, and the Pew Research Center. In 2011-12 he was a member of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff where he helped to shape the US response to the Arab Uprisings. He is the author of the books “Islam & Politics” (2007) and “Transnational Muslim Politics: Reimagining the Umma” (2001).